Components of Fitness
Aerobic Endurance is the ability to perform repetitive, moderate to high intensity movement for a prolonged period of time. Aerobic endurance improves the function of the heart, lungs and blood vessels and is associated with a low risk of premature death from all causes, most specifically cardiovascular disease. Functions of daily life that become easier include walking, shopping, sightseeing, recreational & sport activities.
Muscular Strength is the ability of muscles to exert maximal force for one repetition. Muscular Endurance is the ability of muscles to exert sub maximal force over several repetitions or to hold a contraction for a sustained length of time. Low levels of muscular strength & endurance many times leads to joint & muscle pain, poor posture and musculoskeletal problems. Strength training leads to an increase in lean body mass and an improvement in body composition. Functions of daily life that become easier include climbing stairs, walking distances, getting up from a chair or the floor, and lifting & carrying objects.
Flexibility is the range of motion around a joint. Adequate flexibility is essential in order to maintain good posture, reduce the risk of injury & to minimize joint pain & muscle soreness. Activities of daily life that become easier with adequate flexibility include tying shoes, kneeling down to pick up objects from the floor, putting on overhead garments, and combing hair.
Body Composition is the relative amounts of body fat and lean body tissue (muscle, bone, water, skin, blood, and other nonfat tissues). Excess body fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, many types of cancer, and decreases overall functional capacity.
Dynamic Balance is the ability to maintain postural stability while moving.
Agility involves the coordination necessary to change body position rapidly without losing balance. Although they represent two different components of fitness, they must work together for the successful performance of many everyday activities. Some of these activities include walking, negotiating curbs, climbing stairs, making quick movements to avoid hazards, getting on & off the bus in a timely manner, crossing the street before the light turns red & answering the phone or the door.
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